- jí = I
- súq = you
- nháo = he/she/they
- múy = I+you
- míy = I+they
- máy = I+you+they
- há = one/people (as in "One does not simply walk into Mordor")
These pronouns refer back to words of a certain animacy class:
- hó = him/her/them (animate)
- máq = it (inanimate)
- hóq = it (abstract)
- tá = it (adjective)
Attach -bo to pronouns to make genitive words:
- jıbo = ___ is mine
- suqbo = ___ is yours
- maqbo = ___ is its (inanimate)
- poq = ___ is a person
- ocha = ___ is a human
- nıaı = ___ is an animal
- deo = ___ is a child
- kato = ___ is a cat
- kune = ___ is a dog
- cıe = ___ is a fish
- hoe = ___ is a sun
- mıao = ___ is a moon
- nao = ___ is water
- haq = ___ is food
- rua = ___ is a flower
- reo = ___ has color ___
- reocuaq = ___ is a color
kıa naraq lue rıq kuao mıo loa bao ruı kuo tıaq
All of the above verbs mean "___ has color X", not "___ is the color X".
- maı = ___ loves ___
- paı = ___ is a friend of ___
- cho = ___ likes ___
- hıo = ___ greets/bids farewell to ___
- ceohıo = ___ says hi to ___
- shaıhıo = ___ says bye to ___
- chuq = ___ eats ___
- pıe = ___ drinks ___
- kuq = ___ says ___ to ___
- koy = ___ talks to ___
- gı = ___ is good
- huı = ___ is bad
- de = ___ is beautiful
- tı = ___ is at ___
- nıe = ___ is inside ___
- neo = ___ is on top of ___
- toa = ___ is a word
- muı = ___ is a meaning of ___
- muıbo / semıo = ___ means ___
- toaq = ___ is Toaqic
- dua = ___ knows ___
- chı = ___ believes ___
- mıu = ___ opines ___
- gaı = ___ senses ___
- kaqgaı = ___ sees ___
- huogaı = ___ hears ___
- shıqgaı = ___ smells ___
- noqgaı = ___ tastes ___
- puaqgaı = ___ touches ___
- sı = ___ pays attention to ___
- kaqsı = ___ looks at ___
- huosı = ___ listens to ___
Abstract vocab 2
- kuaı = ___ longs to do ___
- leo = ___ tries to do ___
- tua = ___ makes ___ happen
- shao = ___ wants ___ to happen
- choq = ___ uses ___ to do ___
- ca = ___ causes ___
- kuı = ___ is because ___
- bu = ___ is false (i.e. "not")
- le = ___ is likely
- daı = ___ is possible
- raı = ___ is something
- nı = ___ is this/that
Tenses and aspects
- pu = ___ happened
- naı = ___ happens now
- jıa = ___ will happen
- ceo = ___ starts to happen
- chufaq = ___ is happening
- shaı = ___ stops happening
- shıu = ___ happens before ___
- rao = ___ happens during ___
- bıe = ___ happens after ___
- nıqguo = ___ happens again
- he = ___ is gnomically (generally) true
|Je, (Well,)||háq bı,||gỉ máq jìe nháo||da. (statement)|
|Keo, (However,)||moq? (question)|
|Tıu, (So,)||ba. (wish)|
|Nhu, (Anyway,)||nha. (promise)|
Makes a noun phrase out of the first slot of a verb:
pỏq = ___ is a person => póq = "the person(s)"
cả = ___ causes ___ => cá "the cause(s)"
If a noun for the second slot is needed, use mú and the verb form of the word.
cả => mú cả "the thing(s) that was caused"
Attaches a relative clause to a preceding noun.
Inside the phrase, hóa refers to the noun attached to. cy ends the clause.
- póq düa hóa cy = "the people who know"
- níaı mäı hóa jí cy = "the animal who loves me"
- níaı mäı jí hóa cy = "the animal who I love (it)"
- Mảı jí súq da. = "I love you."
Also marks any non-initial word in a serial. In serials (think "unit" of words), only the first word of the serial changes tone. The rest stays in . In the example below, only the word kúo changes to . The remaining kảto is in .
- Mảı jí kúo kảto da. = "I love the black cat."
Starts a content clause, terminated by cy.
- ôcha jí cy = "that I am human"
- Dủa jí ôcha jí cy da. = "I know that I am human."
- Keo shảo jí nîaı jí cy da. = "But I want to be an animal."
It can go before or after the arguments to the main verb.
- nèo míao = "on the moon"
- Kỏy jí súq nèo míao. = "I talk to you on the moon."
- Mảı jí súq kùı pâı súq jí. = "I love you because you are my friend."
An adverb. It can go before or after the arguments to the main verb.
- dãı = "possibly"
- Chỉ hó hóq dãı da. = "They possibly believe it."
Used for function words like illocutions. Pronounced as any tonal "break" with the contour of the last word.
Combine with a verb to make a "determiner phrase".
|sa cỉe||a/some fish|
|tu cỉe||every fish|
|sıa cỉe||no fish|
|ke cỉe||the fish|
|baq cỉe||fish (in general)|
|hı cỉe||which fish?|
Or you can omit the verb: sa = "something", sıa = "nothing"…
Logical conjunctions connect any parts of speech, with a "logic and/or/xor" meaning:
- Gỉ ra dẻ baq kảto da. = "Cats are good and/or beautiful."
- Gỉ ro hủı baq hảq da. = "Food is either good or bad."
- Rẻı súq ru jí múao. = "You and I surround the tree." (Both I do, and you do.)
roı is special, and combines nouns it connects:
- Rẻı súq roı jí múao. = "You and I (together) surround the tree."
Quotations and names
Quotations start with mo and end with teo.
mı is placed before a name.
If you are addressing someone, hu should be added before the name.
Hu mí Hỏemaı, lả hỉo ka = "Hello, Hoemaı".
Remember to add some separation between the name and the following sentence with lả or something similar.
moq is the illocution for asking questions.
mả can be used to ask a yes/no question. (Mả mỉ Hỏemaı súq moq? = "Are you Hoemaı?")
hı 'what, which', co 'how many' may be used to ask non-yes/no questions. For example:
|"Where are you?"|
|"When did you arrive?"|
|"Who ate this?"|
|"Why did you do that?"|
Used for showing possession, terminated by ga; "Pó [possessor] ga [possessee]"
Nủı pó káto ga nỉoka. = "The cat's paws are tiny."