Cheat sheet

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Pronouns

  • = I
  • súq = you (sg.)
  • súna = you all (pl.)
  • nháo = he/she/they (sg.)
  • nhána = they (pl.)
  • úmo = I+you
  • íme = I+they
  • súho = I+you+they
  • = one/people (as in "One does not simply walk into Mordor")

These pronouns refer back to words of a certain animacy class:

  • = him/her/them (animate)
  • máq = it (inanimate)
  • hóq = it (abstract)
  • = it (adjective)

Attach -bo to pronouns to make genitive words:

  • jıbo = ___ is mine
  • suqbo = ___ is yours
  • maqbo = ___ is its (inanimate)

For example:

  • Jıbo kúe ní (da). = "This is my book"
  • Bo súq kúe jıbo (da). = "You have my book"

Nature vocab

  • poq = ___ is a person
  • ocha = ___ is a human
  • nıaı = ___ is an animal
  • deo = ___ is a child
  • kato = ___ is a cat
  • kune = ___ is a dog
  • cıe = ___ is a fish
  • hoe = ___ is a sun
  • mıao = ___ is a moon
  • nao = ___ is water
  • haq = ___ is food
  • rua = ___ is a flower

Colors

  • reo = ___ has color ___
  • reocuaq = ___ is a color

kıa naraq lue rıq kuao mıo loa bao ruı kuo tıaq

All of the above verbs mean "___ has color X", not "___ is the color X".

Everyday vocab

  • maı = ___ loves ___
  • paı = ___ is a friend of ___
  • cho = ___ likes ___
  • hıo = ___ greets/bids farewell to ___

  • ceohıo = ___ says hi to ___
  • shaıhıo = ___ says bye to ___

  • chuq = ___ eats ___
  • pıe = ___ drinks ___
  • kuq = ___ says ___ to ___
  • koy = ___ talks to ___
  • = ___ is good
  • huı = ___ is bad
  • de = ___ is beautiful
  • = ___ is at ___
  • nıe = ___ is inside ___
  • neo = ___ is on top of ___

Abstract vocab

  • toa = ___ is a word
  • muı = ___ is a meaning of ___

  • bọmuı = ___ means ___

  • toaq = ___ is Toaqic
  • dua = ___ knows ___
  • chı = ___ believes ___
  • mıu = ___ opines ___
  • gaı = ___ senses ___

  • kaqgaı = ___ sees ___
  • huogaı = ___ hears ___
  • shıqgaı = ___ smells ___
  • noqgaı = ___ tastes ___
  • puaqgaı = ___ touches ___


  • = ___ pays attention to ___

  • kaqsı = ___ looks at ___
  • huosı = ___ listens to ___, etc.


Abstract vocab 2

  • kuaı = ___ longs to do ___
  • leo = ___ tries to do ___
  • tua = ___ makes ___ happen
  • shao = ___ wants ___ to happen
  • choq = ___ uses ___ to do ___
  • ca = ___ causes ___
  • kuı = ___ is because ___
  • bu = ___ is false (i.e. "not")
  • le = ___ is likely
  • daı = ___ is possible
  • raı = ___ is something

Tenses and aspects

  • pu = ___ happened
  • naı = ___ happens now
  • jıa = ___ will happen
  • ceo = ___ starts to happen
  • chum = ___ is happening
  • shaı = ___ stops happening
  • shıu = ___ happens before ___
  • rao = ___ happens during ___
  • bıe = ___ happens after ___
  • nıqguo = ___ happens again
  • he = ___ is gnomically (generally) true

Sentence structure

(Complementizer
or conjunction)
(Topic) Body (Illocution)
Ꝡa, (declarative) háq bï, gı máq jîe nháo da. (statement, optional)
Keo, (But,) móq? (question, optional)
Tıu, (So,) ba. (wish)
Ma (yes/no question) nha. (promise)


Falling tone falling tone

Main verb.

  • Maı jí súq (da). = "I love you."

Also marks any non-initial word in a serial. If you have a noun phrase, adverb phrase, etc, only the first word "conjugates". The rest stays in falling tone. In the example below, only the word káto changes to rising tone. The remaining kuo is in falling tone.

  • Maı jí káto kuo da. = "I love the black cat."