(Redirected from Pronouns)
Toaq has relatively many pronouns. It makes distinctions that English does not:
- Clusivity: there are many words for “we” depending on who exactly is included.
- Exophora vs. anaphora: there are different pronouns for “things or people external to the text” (exophora) vs. “references to earlier phrases” (anaphora).
- Animacy: there are different third-person pronouns for animals vs. objects vs. ideas. There are 4 different anaphoric pronouns for different types of grammatical constructs.
|súho||you (you and they)|
|nháo||he, she, they (singular)|
|nhána||they (animate plural)|
|úmo||we (you and I)|
|íme||we (they and I)|
|áma||we (you, they, and I)|
|há||one (people in general)|
|hó||he/she/they (latest grammatically animate DP)|
|máq||it (latest grammatically inanimate DP)|
|hóq||it (latest grammatically abstract DP)|
|tá||it (latest adjective-like DP)|
|áq||itself/himself/herself/themselves (clause subject)|
|chéq||each other (reciprocal with clause subject)|
- All living animals have the pronoun nháo in Toaq, not just humans.
- The subject (first argument) of a clause binds only the anaphoric pronoun áq, so you cannot use hó, máq, hóq… to refer to it.
- For each pronoun, there's a verb crated by affixing -bo to it that means “___ is (that pronoun)'s”.
- For example, suqbo means “yours” and tabo means “its” (belonging to the referent of tá).