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Toaq has relatively many pronouns. It makes distinctions that English does not:

  • Clusivity: there are many words for “we” depending on who exactly is included.
  • Exophora vs. anaphora: there are different pronouns for “things or people external to the text” (exophora) vs. “references to earlier phrases” (anaphora).
  • Animacy: there are different third-person pronouns for animals vs. objects vs. ideas. There are 4 different anaphoric pronouns for different types of grammatical constructs.
Exophoric pronouns
Pronoun Meaning
I, me
súq you (singular)
súna you (plural)
súho you (you and they)
nháo he, she, they (singular)
nhána they (animate plural)
kóm* it (inanimate)
* it (abstract)
úmo we (you and I)
íme we (they and I)
áma we (you, they, and I)
one (people in general)
Anaphoric pronouns
Pronoun Meaning
he/she/they (latest grammatically animate DP)
máq it (latest grammatically inanimate DP)
hóq it (latest grammatically abstract DP)
it (latest adjective-like DP)
áq itself/himself/herself/themselves (clause subject)
chéq each other (reciprocal with clause subject)



  • All living animals have the pronoun nháo in Toaq, not just humans.
  • The subject (first argument) of a clause binds only the anaphoric pronoun áq, so you cannot use hó, máq, hóq… to refer to it.
  • For each pronoun, there's a verb crated by affixing -bo to it that means “___ is (that pronoun)'s”.
    • For example, suqbo means “yours” and tabo means “its” (belonging to the referent of ).