From The Toaq Wiki

This page gives an overview of Toaq-specific jargon, or logic jargon as it relates to Toaq.


A family of proposals for automatically inserting hóa into a relative clause. See the dedicated page.


Words that are not particles. This includes at least all verbs. It used to be the case that there were only verbs and particles, but in Toaq Delta, new parts-of-speech (like tenses) probably straddle the line between particle and contentive.


See Donkey sentence.

Exhibitor slots / genitival serialization

In old versions of Toaq, transitive verbs with concrete objects could be on the left in a serial verb.

For example, cho nıaı had the meaning of cho bâq nıaı. (That is to say: this feature has been superseded by object incorporation.)

The object slot of cho was then called an "exhibitor slot", and this kind of serialization was called "genitival serialization".


A family of words, all having the same signature. Each frame is named after a familiar word in the frame.

See Hoaqgio’s list of predicate frames for a list of all major frames as of 2021. The new list is much slimmer; viz. Frame#Table of serial frames.

Great Root Expansion (GRE)

A 2019 phonology update.


Jîe jí, "in my opinion".

New Segmentation (Newseg)

A 2020 proposal for a change to the tone system. This was superseded by the segmentation system as laid out in the Gamma reference grammar.


See Opaque.

t2, t3, t4

The second, third, fourth… tone.

Universe of discourse (UoD)

The set of things under discussion at a given time. Quantifiers range over this domain, so that tú poq doesn't necessarily mean "all of the people in the world". See Wikipedia.