A serial verb (or serial) (Toaq: jeotoachue) is created when two or more verbs are placed together. This process is called serialization.
Serial verbs are a powerful construct in Toaq grammar.
Any verb with a “property” or “event” slot at the end can essentially act as an auxiliary verb.
Here is a list of examples to demonstrate the sort of thing serial verbs let you express in Toaq.
|deq koı||can walk|
|sheo fıeq||regret inventing|
|leo kuaq||try expressing|
|guaı kaı||work on writing|
|tua cuaı||make wet|
|jaq chuı||very early|
|joe suaq||be skilled at singing|
|taq loı||self- hate|
When joining two verbs together into a serial, their definitions are merged according to the serialization algorithm.
Verbs that are treated the same in this algorithm are said to belong to the same “serial frame”.
All of the behaviors in the table above arise from a handful of rules:
|leo||___ tries to satisfy property||___|
|leo baı||___ tries to build ___|
|le||it is probable that||___|
|le guq||___ is probably underneath ___|
For more than two verbs, this merging process is right-grouping:
sheo (leo kuaq)
regret (trying to express)
le (haı (luı (ceo guaı)))
probably (already (have (started working)))
Ma deq koı súq?
Are you able to walk?
Bujuı suaomıu jí ní da.
I barely care about that.
Sheo leo ruo huaq caq jí nháo da.
I regret trying to act more strong than them.