A serial verb (or serial) (Toaq: jeotoachue) is created when two or more verbs are placed together. This process is called serialization.
NOTE: this article has only partially been updated for Toaq Delta, some parts are outdated
Serial verbs are a powerful construct in Toaq grammar:
- Any verb with a “property” or “event” slot can essentially act as an auxiliary verb.
- With other verbs, the result is like “adjective-noun”, or “verb-object”.
Here is a list of examples to demonstrate the sort of thing serial verbs let you express in Toaq.
|deq koı||can walk|
|pu nuo||did sleep|
|sheo fıeq||regret inventing|
|leo kuaq||try expressing|
|guaı kaı||work on writing|
|tua cuaı||make wet|
|jaq chuı||very early|
|bu suao||be not important|
|joe suaq||be skilled at singing|
|taq loı||self- hate|
|sao meı||be a big mountain|
|joaı haq||seek food|
When joining two verbs together into a serial, their definitions are merged according to the serialization algorithm.
Verbs that are treated the same in this algorithm are said to belong to the same “serial frame”.
All of the behaviors in the table above arise from a handful of rules:
|leo||___ tries to satisfy property||___|
|leo baı||___ tries to build ___|
|le||it is probable that||___|
|le guq||___ is probably underneath ___|
|rua||___||is a flower|
|cho rua||___ likes flowers|
|paq||___||is a part of ___|
|sao paq||___ is a big part of ___|
For more than two verbs, this merging process is right-grouping:
sheo (leo kuaq)
regret (trying to express)
le (haı (luı (ceo guaı)))
probably (already (have (started working)))
Ma deq koı súq?
Are you able to walk?
Bu suaojıe jí ní da.
I don't care about that.
Sheo leo ruo huaq caq jí nháo da.
I regret trying to act more strong than them.
the big mountain
bû jaq de
not very beautifully