From The Toaq Wiki

There have been a few published versions of Toaq:

  • Toaq (Dzu) alpha, released in August 2013, documented here.
  • Toaq beta, released in September 2017 on “”, documented here.
  • Toaq gamma, released in September 2021 on, documented in the refgram.
  • Toaq delta, the current version, released 6 December 2022 on, documented here.

Beyond the grammar writeup, little is preserved of the alpha version. Toaq beta was a complete reboot.

Between the beta and gamma versions, there were gradual official changes in the language as spoken on Discord and elsewhere.

Comparison of versions

Alpha (2013) Beta (2017) Gamma (2021) Delta (2022)
Consonants /m n ŋ p t k b d ɡ f s ʃ h v z ʒ r l w j/ (20) /m n ŋ b d g t͡sʰ t͡ɕʰ d͡ʑ f s ɕ h ɾ l/ (18) Beta + /ɲ d͡z ʔ/ (21) Gamma + /w ~ j/ (22)
Vowels /a e i o u/ /a e i o u/ Beta + /ə/ Gamma - /ə/
Phonotactics There were glides (/gja/ "meet"),
long vowels (/daː/ "woman"),
consonant clusters (/sna/ "house").
At most CVVG. Good old CVVG remains. Well, there's a glottal stop onset now, which is kinda like (C)V(V)(G). (C)V(Q) or (C)F

C - onset consonant V - vowel F - falling diphthong Q - {/ŋ/, /m/}

Tones 8 + neutral: āáăảâàãạa[1] 7 + neutral: flat tonerising tonefalling-rising tone (obsolete 3rd tone)falling tonerising-falling tonemid-falling tonefalling creaky toneneutral tone 6 + neutral: rising tonerising-creaky tonefalling tonerising-falling tonemid-falling tonefalling creaky toneneutral tone
Tone is per-word, not per-syllable.
4: neutral tonerising tonerising-creaky tonerising-falling tone (falling, rising, low glottal, rising-falling)
“You are very beautiful” Tōu dāe téq na. Jảq dẻ súq da. Jảq dẻ súq da. Bụqde súq (da).
“The John who met you is my friend” Pāı mí Djāq gyủ ca téq na góu na.[2] Pảı mí Jảq gěq hóa súq na jí da. Pảı mí Jảq gëq hóa súq cy jí da. Paı mí Jaq ꝡë geq hóa súq jí (da).
  1. There was seemingly no rising-falling tone equivalent. There were three mid-falling tone equivalents: one for arguments (peaking â) and one for clauses (low à), and a variant of the low tone that always has top scope (dipping ă).
  2. I have assumed that ca is ancient hóa. (It was probably pronounced /ʃa/.)