Toaq Delta

From The Toaq Wiki

Toaq Delta is the current version of Toaq, released on December 6, 2022. It is described in the Toaq Delta Reference Grammar.

Changes from Gamma


  • New consonant /w~j/ written Ꝡꝡ.
  • Vowel y /ə/ is gone. There are new diphthongs like /e.u/ or /i.ɛj/.
  • Syllables can end in /m/ in addition to /ŋ/.
  • There are 4 tones, down from 7.
  • There is a new system of derivational prefixes.


  • Some typographic conventions are established: commas around clauses, ? at the end of a question.
  • A new writing system, Derani.


  • Determiners take the rising tone rising tone.
    • is a determiner.
  • The new glottal tone glottal tone marks subordinating function words. Notably, it doesn't go on verbs.
  • Old tones mid-falling tone and falling creaky tone merged into the single adjunct tone hiatus tone.
  • New pronouns.
    • róu, etc are gone: instead, attach hú- to any head to refer back to the phrase headed by it.
  • Many uses of are replaced by the cleft verb . Only real topics use .
  • Adjectives come after the "noun" now.
  • Object incorporation is richer.
  • Sentence prefixes (JE) are gone. Use connectives or interjections instead.
  • Forethought connectives (TO) are gone.
  • Connectives can be tone-conjugated to change how closely they bind.


  • chufaq → chum, naby → nam
  • hóı is now the vocative marker and the "aforementioned" determiner (they swapped places).