Reference Grammar of Toaq

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This page was written for Toaq Gamma. Its contents are not yet up to date with the latest version of Toaq, Toaq Delta.

The Reference Grammar of Toaq (or refgram) was published in December 2021, and can be found here.


Toaq Gamma (September 2021) can be found here. A Chinese translation was published by Haıdosıanı in February 2022 and an up-to-date version can be found here. It describes the grammar of Toaq 2021.

Changes since early-2021 Toaq

These are changes since (Toaq Beta + Changes since Public Beta). This overview is mostly relevant if you were already speaking Toaq when the refgram came out.)

  • New segmentation, no more even tone flat tone
  • Introduction of Type I and Type II adverbials
  • Thematic role words like puoq and chou
  • Names for all the letters
  • aq must be used whenever available: an anaphoric pronoun in its skips over the would-be aq referent.
  • Numbers are split up and have special serialization rules
  • "Exhibitor slots" are officialized as "genitival serials"
  • Particles can be multisyllabic now, allowing for...
    • mıru, "Mx.", with same grammar as
    • tuq, tushı are quantifiers now
  • mao, juaq are KU-class particles now
  • , go, cu are "demoted to experimental"
  • Warning/permitting/agreement-seeking illocutions
  • New interjections, including nho "yes" and "no"
  • duoı is now spelled duo (old duo might be gone in favor of fa or other words?)
  • za "about to happen"